Clark (formerly Diosdado Macapagal) International Airport, Philippines
Clark International Airport (CIA), formerly known as Diosdado Macapagal International Airport (DMIA), is situated in the Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ - a free port) of the Philippines near Angeles City on Luzon Island.
The airport was developed from the old US Clark Airbase (33,653ha) which was closed in 1991 when the US left following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo, which led to the area of the base being strewn with debris and lava. The old airbase was cleaned up in the following two years and in 1993 the CSEZ was opened in its place on the site with DMIA airport at the centre.
The old air force base has formed an exceptional basis for an international airport with two identical concrete parallel runways (02R/20L and 02L/20R) both 10,500ft (3,200m) long and able to accept the majority of commercial aircraft. The A380 landed here on a test flight in October 2007 and the airport during its previous use as an airbase was designated as an alternate landing strip for the space shuttle.
The airport is 85km north west of the capital Manila, which is still within the required catchment to be a useful airport for business use (the road infrastructure around the airport has been improved with the 21bn-peso Subic Clark Tarlac Expressway (SCTEX) completed in March 2008). There are plans to establish a rail link to the airport through Metro Manila.
The CIA is administered and operated by the Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC). The airport handled 1.3 million passengers in 2012.
Terminals at Clark International Airport
The airport has a single terminal building, which was expanded twice to accommodate four million passengers a year. In 2003 the CIAC board gave their approval to a master plan (put together by the Korean International Cooperation Agency and costing $2m) to develop the airport to its full potential over the period to 2025.
The initial plan was to expand the terminal building so that it could accept around one million passengers a year (project costing 130m pesos). This project began in 2006 and was completed at the end of January 2008. Subsequent terminal expansions (Phase 1 and Phase 2) in 2010 and 2013 increased the annual passenger capacity to 2.5 million and four million respectively.
A new low cost carrier terminal (LCC) with a passenger handling capacity of 10 million per year was proposed in 2014. The estimated cost of the project is PHP 7.2bn ($164m), which will be funded from FASEP-Etudes, a development aid fund managed by the French government.
CIAC will submit the proposal to the National Economic Development Authority-Investment Coordination Committee in August 2014. The terminal construction is expected to start by the end of 2014 and is scheduled to be completed in 2016.
Runways at CIA
The CIA has two identical and parallel concrete runways extending up to 4km. The primary runway, Runway 02R/20L is 3,200m wide and 61m wide while the secondary runway, 02L/20R is of the same length but 45m wide.
The primary runway has Category 1 rating for precision approach and is equipped with all navigational aids and lighting facilities. The secondary runway is not yet fully equipped and is compliant with Visual Flight Rules (VFR).
The terminal radar approach control (TRACON) project was first started at DMIA in September 2005 and due to cost cutting and budget over-runs was not completed. This was needed to bring the airport into compliance with International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) standards.
The project was finally completed in April 2007. The TRACON facility cost $9.3m (a 15-year loan from Deutsche Bank) and moves DMIA into the position of having the most modern system in the country.
The radar system, which can operate in all weathers, can detect incoming and outgoing aircraft in a radius of 60nm to 220nm of the airport. This means that the airport is no longer reliant on the radar system of its rival Ninoy Aquino International.
The system was installed by SELEX of Italy who also had to upgrade parts of the CIAC buildings in order to install the new console display. DMIA also has all other necessary systems including: instrument landing system, Doppler VHF omni-directional range, primary and secondary surveillance radar, non-directional beacon, airfield ground lighting system and a precision approach path indicator (PAPI).
Gate Gourmet facilities
Gate Gourmet and Miascor have invested $3m at DMIA to construct an in-flight catering service facility. The new facility will be able to prepare over 4,000 meals a day for the airlines operating from the airport. This development shows promise in that it anticipates an increase in long haul flights from the airport over the next few years.
Building for the new facility started in March 2007. It is being constructed on a 3,000m² site adjacent to the CIAC headquarters. The construction work was undertaken by Philippine Sundt Construction and completed in the first quarter of 2008.
Other DMIA projects
Philippine Airlines negotiated a deal at the end of 2007 with CAIC to invest $50m in the construction of maintenance, catering and ground handling facilities at DMIA. The deal was closed by the end of the first quarter of 2008 and the facilities will now be constructed concurrently with the airport's second phase of expansion.
Philippine Airlines would like to use the airport as a hub to fly to Hong Kong, Singapore, Macau, Bangkok and also Taipei. The Philippine government has also improved the viability of the airport by relaxing rules on foreign budget carriers using the airport as a stopover point to other Asian countries.
In April 2008 two projects were agreed with contractors as part of phase two. The first was the Global Gateway logistics park, which will be located at Industrial Estate 5 on a 125ha site and will be developed by Kuwait Gulf and Link (KGL) for an investment of $25m. In addition construction on a new 10ha maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) facility to service wide-bodied and narrow-bodied aircraft was started in November 2008. The company responsible for the MRO is the Singapore Airlines Engineering Company (SIAEC).
Diosado Macapagal master plan
The 2025 master plan puts forward far-reaching plans for the construction of a Y-shaped passenger terminal with 126 air bridges (19 for the A380).
In addition there will be an X-shaped satellite concourse with 79 air bridges (12 for the A380) and also a midfield air traffic control tower. A third parallel runway is planned along with new taxiways and aprons and a new cargo terminal complex.
The airport infrastructure being increased to this level will allow an estimated 40 million passengers a year to use the airport. The master plan also puts forward plans for an automatic people mover, a ground transportation centre, a new two-line rail system for the airport and commuters to Manila and additional road infrastructure leading to the Subic-Clark Tarlac Expressway.
In the final phases of the airport development in 2025, there could be a total of 145 frontal gates, 134 remote gates and four runways. The facility will then be able to handle an annual total of 110 million passengers. These impressive plans will potentially lead to the airport becoming a major hub in Asia.