The first global governmental agreement to reduce carbon emissions has been signed by 190 contracting states of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO).
The agreement was signed in a resolution during the 37th ICAO Assembly, which concluded in Montreal, Canada on 8 October.
The ICAO resolution recommends to improve fuel efficiency by 2% annually, achieve a collective medium-term goal to cap aviation carbon emissions from 2020 and achieve a global carbon dioxide standard for aircraft engines by 2013.
It also calls for the development of a global framework on market-based economic measures by the 38th Assembly to be held in 2013, based on 15 agreed principles.
The principles are designed to minimise market distortions, safeguard fair treatment of aviation relative to other sectors, ensure aviation emissions are accounted for only once and recognise the past and future efforts of carriers.
In 2009, the International Air Transport Association members committed to a 1.5% average annual improvement in fuel efficiency to 2020, capping net emissions with carbon-neutral growth from 2020 and cutting net emissions in half by 2050 compared to 2005.